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 Iliret ne beteja

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MesazhTitulli: Iliret ne beteja   Thu Jun 04, 2009 5:04 pm

Lufta e Pare Iliro-Romake (229-228 p.e.s)



Rritja e fuqizimi i Mbreterise Ilire vuri ne shqetesim jo vetem shtetet e Greqise por dhe Republiken e Romes, e cila synonte te sundonte ne detin Adriatik. Ne vjështë te vitit 229 para eres se re Roma filloi luften kunder Mbreterise Ilire.
Fati i luftes me Romen nuk u percaktua aq nga veprimet luftarake sesa nga dobesite e brendshme te shtetit Ilir. Qytetet e medha si Dyrrahu, Apolonia dhe Isa te cilat perbanin mbështëtjen kryesore te mbrojtjes u bashkuan me romaket. Njeri nga komandatet e Teutes Dhimiter Fari tradhetoi dhe ia dorezoi armikut floten Ilire dhe ishullin e Korkyres. Ne keto kushte Teuta u detyrua te nenshkruante paqen me Romen.
Kushtet e paqes se vitit 228 para eres se re qene te renda per Mbreterine Ilire. Teuta detyrohej t’u paguante romakeve nje takse, te hiqte dore nga pjesa me e madhe e Ilirise dhe te mos lundronte ne jug te Lisit me me shume se dy anije. Keshtu Mbreteria Ilire u reduktua ne nje shtet te vogel ne veri te Lisit.

Lufta e Dyte Iliro-Romake (219-219 p.e.s)

Pas nenshkrimit te paqes u duk sikur ne Iliri qe vendosur plotesisht sundimi Romak. Por ngjarjet tregojne se as iliret, as fqinjet e tyre maqedonet nuk u pajtuan me gjendjen e krijuar. Ne vitet qe pasuan, Dhimiter Fari u be mekembes i Mbreterise Ilire ne vend te Teutes e cila ishte larguar nga froni. Dhimiter Fari e shtriu pushtetin e tij mbi gjithe Mbreterine Ilire dhe ndermori nje politike te pavarur nga Roma; ai lidhi aleance me Maqedonine, mekembi ushtrine, ndertoi nje flote te fuqishme dhe u be nje kundershtar i ri per Romen.
Roma nuk mund ta lejonte kete fuqizim te ri te Mbreterise Ilire dhe me 219 para eres se re i shpalli lufte. Edhe kete radhe iliret vuanin nga perçarjet e brendshme. Nje pjese e aristokracise skllavopronare me ne krye Skerdilaidin, kaloi ne anen e romakeve. Me 218 para eres se re pas dy betejave shume te ashpra, njera ne Dimal (midis Fierit e Beratit) dhe te tjera ne ishullin e Farit (Dalmacine Jugore), Dhimiter Fari u mund dhe u largua per ne Maqedoni. Ne keto kushte Roma e cila kishte shqetesimet e saj te brendshme lidhi me te shpejte nje marreveshje me Skerdilaidin i cili u be sundimtar i shtetit Ilir dhe detyrohej ti paguante Romes disa taksa.

Lufta e Trete Iliro Romake (170-167 p.e.s)

Pas luftes qe perfundoi me fitoren e Romes, ndikimi i saj mbi shtetin Ilir erdhi duke u rritur. Kjo beri qe forcat antiromake ne Iliri te zgjeroheshin. Pleurati (i biri i Skerdilaidit), me gjithe perpjekjet qe beri, nuk qe ne gjendje te çlirohej nga vartesia e Romes.
Hipja ne fron e Gentit me 181 p.e.s shenon nje etape te re per shtetin Ilir. Ai u perpoq shume per forcimin ekonomik e politik te shtetit ilir. Ai synoi te vendoste nje sistem monetar te perbashket per gjithe mbreterine. Nder masat qe mori, perqendroi pushtetin ne duart e tij, forcoi ushtrine dhe floten, lidhi miqesi me shtetet fqinje dhe me Maqedonine, kundershtaren e re te Romes ne Ballkan. Me fillimin e luftes ndermjet Romes e Maqedonise ne vitin 171 para eres se re iliret u rreshtuan ne aleancen tripaleshe antiromake iliro-maqedono-epirote.
Flota Ilire filloi veprimet luftarake ne det po nuk arriti dot te pengonte romaket te cilet ne vitin 168 para eres se re zbarkuan me ushtri te shumta ne brigjet e Ilirise. Romaket i perqendruan ushtrite e tyre ne Genus (Shkumbin) e prej andej pushtuan qendrat e rendesishme gjate rruges dhe u gjenden para mureve te Shkodres. Ne vend qe forcat ilire te qendronin brenda mureve te qytetit, Genti e nxorri ushtrine e vet nga keshtjella dhe i sulmoi romaket ne fushe te hapur, pikerisht aty ku kerkonte armiku. Ndeshja perfundoi me thyerjen e plote te ushtrise ilire. Genti u dorezua rob me gjithe familjen dhe u dergua si rob ne Rome. (Varri i tij ndodhet ne Umbio, Gubio).

Mburoje dhe kallcike kembesh bronzi Ilire. Origjinali gjendet ne Muzeumin e Tiranes. Afersisht 50 cm ne diameter. Rreth vitit 400 P.E.S.
Pas fitores mbi Shkodren, romaket iu drejtuan Maqedonise e cila gjithashtu pesoi disfate. Nje vit me vone me 167 para eres se re romaket pushtuan dhe Epirin.
Pas mbarimit te Luftes se Trete Iliro-Romake, Iliria e Jugut u copetua dhe u shkaterrua ekonomikisht, qytetet dhe fshatrat u plackiten dhe u rrenuan. Per Iliret dhe Epirotet filloi nje periudhe e gjate e sundimit romak e cila vazhdoi dhe per me teper se pese shekuj e gjysem

Luftat perfunduan ne favor te Romes por gjaku ilirik nuk humbi, vetite e perçuara nga breznia ne brezni ben qe shekuj me vone Perandoria ngadhenjyese te udhehiqej pikerisht nga Perandor me GJAK ILIR. Ne kete periudhe te njohur Perandoret Ilir mbrojten dhe forcuan Romen, disa per tyre ishin:

Claudio II (268-270) i mbiquajtur Gotiku, per fitoret e tij te bujshme mbi fiset gote.

Aureliano (270-275), i njohur per fitoret e tij mbi gotet dhe alemanet, ndertuesi i mureve aureliane ne Rome.

Probo (276-282) dhe Caro (282-283), edhe keta fitimtar mbi fiset barbare.

Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus reformatori i Perandorise.

Shekuj me vone perandore te tjere me GJAK ILIR do te viheshin ne krye te Perandorise, me i famshmi Justiniani, reformat e tij juridike dhe kodi qe mban emrin e tij jane ende sot ne themel te se drejtes private te europes.
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MesazhTitulli: Re: Iliret ne beteja   Sat Aug 01, 2009 3:49 pm


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MesazhTitulli: Re: Iliret ne beteja   Sat Aug 01, 2009 3:50 pm


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MesazhTitulli: Re: Iliret ne beteja   Sat Aug 01, 2009 3:58 pm


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MesazhTitulli: Re: Iliret ne beteja   Sat Aug 01, 2009 3:58 pm


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MesazhTitulli: Re: Iliret ne beteja   Sat Aug 01, 2009 8:11 pm


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MesazhTitulli: Re: Iliret ne beteja   Mon Dec 21, 2009 3:44 am


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MesazhTitulli: Re: Iliret ne beteja   Mon Dec 21, 2009 3:48 am

[img][img=http://img710.imageshack.us/img710/7987/iliretjemine.th.png][/img]

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MesazhTitulli: Re: Iliret ne beteja   Mon Dec 21, 2009 3:49 am


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MesazhTitulli: Re: Iliret ne beteja   Mon Dec 21, 2009 5:05 pm


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MesazhTitulli: Re: Iliret ne beteja   Mon Dec 21, 2009 5:08 pm


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MesazhTitulli: Re: Iliret ne beteja   Mon Dec 21, 2009 5:09 pm


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MesazhTitulli: Re: Iliret ne beteja   Mon Dec 21, 2009 5:10 pm


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MesazhTitulli: Re: Iliret ne beteja   Mon Dec 21, 2009 5:10 pm


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MesazhTitulli: Re: Iliret ne beteja   Mon Dec 21, 2009 5:11 pm


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MesazhTitulli: Re: Iliret ne beteja   Mon Dec 21, 2009 5:11 pm

[quote]In Homer's Iliad he is described as of great stature, colossal frame, the tallest and strongest of all the Achaeans, Achilles in skill-at-arms, and Diomedes to whom he lost a sparring competition as well as the 'bulwark of the Achaeans'. He was trained by the centaur Chiron (who had trained his father, Telamon, and Achilles' father Peleus), at the same time as Achilles. Apart from Achilles, Ajax is the most valuable warrior in Agamemnon's army (along with Diomedes), though he is not as cunning as Nestor, Diomedes, Idomeneus, or Odysseus. He commands his army wielding a huge shield made of seven cow-hides with a layer of bronze. Most notably, Ajax is not wounded in any of the battles described in the Iliad, and he is the only principal character on either side who does not receive personal assistance from any of the gods who take part in the battles.

In the Iliad, Ajax is notable for his abundant strength and courage, seen particularly in two fights with Hector. In Book 7, Ajax is chosen by lot to meet Hector in a duel which lasts most of a whole day. Ajax at first gets the better of the encounter, wounding Hector with his spear and knocking him down with a large stone, but Hector fights on until the heralds, acting at the direction of Zeus, call a draw: the action ends without a winner and with the two combatants exchanging gifts.

The second fight between Ajax and Hector occurs when the latter breaks into the Achaean camp, and fights with the Greeks among the ships. In Book 14, Ajax throws a giant rock at Hector which almost kills him. In Book 15, Hector is restored to his strength by Apollo and returns to attack the ships. Ajax, wielding an enormous spear as a weapon and leaping from ship to ship, holds off the Trojan armies virtually single-handedly. In Book 16, Hector is able to disarm Ajax (although Ajax is not hurt) and Ajax is forced to retreat, seeing that Zeus is clearly favoring Hector. Hector and the Trojans succeed in burning one Greek ship, the culmination of an assault that almost finishes the war. Ajax manages to kill many of the other Trojan lords, including Phorkys.

Achilles was absent during these encounters because of his feud with Agamemnon. In Book 9, Agamemnon and the other Greek chiefs send Ajax, Odysseus and Phoenix to the tent of Achilles in an attempt to reconcile with the great warrior and induce him to return to the fight. Although Ajax speaks earnestly and is well received, he does not succeed in convincing Achilles.

When Patroclus is killed, Hector tries to steal his body. Ajax is the man who fights to protect the body, and he takes it back safely to Achilles at the camp. Ajax, assisted by Menelaus, succeeds in fighting off the Trojans and taking the body back with his chariot; of course, the Trojans had already stolen the armor and left the body naked. Ajax's prayer to Zeus to remove the fog that has descended on the battle to allow them to fight or die in the light of day has become proverbial.

Like most of the other Greek leaders, Ajax is alive and well as the Iliad comes to a close. Later, when Achilles dies, killed by Paris (with help from Apollo), Ajax and Odysseus are the heroes that fight against the Trojans to get the body and bury it next to his friend, Patroclus. Ajax, with his great shield and spear, manages to drive off the Trojans, while Odysseus pulls the body to his chariot, and rides away with it to safety. After the burial, both claim the armor for themselves, as recognition for their efforts. After several days of competition, Odysseus and Ajax are tied for the ownership of the magical armor which was forged in Mount Olympus by the god Hephaestus. It is then that a competition is held to determine who deserves the armor. Ajax argues that because of his strength and the fighting he has done for the Greeks, including saving the ships from Hector, and driving him off with a massive rock, he deserves the armor. (Ovid Metamorphoses, Translated by Rolfe Humphries, Indiana University Press, Indianapolis, IN, 1955, Book XIII, pp. 305-309). Odysseus proves the more eloquent, and the council gives him the armor. Ajax, "[U]nconqured," and furious, falls upon his own sword, "conquered by his [own] sorrow" (ibid, p. 318). A translation of the debate and Ajax's death can be found here (http://classics.mit.edu/Ovid/metam.13.thirteenth.html). In Sophocles' play "Ajax," a famous retelling of Ajax's demise takes place - after the armor is awarded to Odysseus the hero Ajax falls to the ground, exhausted. When he wakes up, he is under the influence of a spell from Athena. He goes to a flock of sheep and slaughters them, imagining they are the Achaean leaders, including Odysseus and Agamemnon. When he comes to his senses, covered in blood, and realizes what he did, with diminished honor he decides that he prefers to kill himself rather than to live in shame. He does so with the same sword Hector gave him when they exchanged presents. (Iliad, 7.303). From his blood sprang a red flower, as at the death of Hyacinthus, which bore on its leaves the initial letters of his name Ai, also expressive of lament (Pausanias 1.35.4). His ashes were deposited in a golden urn on the Rhoetean promontory at the entrance of the Hellespont. This account of his death is from the play, Ajax (Sophocles); in Pindar's Nemeans, 7, 8; Isthmian 4; and in Ovid's Metamorphoses, 13.1. Homer is somewhat vague about the precise manner of Ajax's death but does ascribe it to his loss in the dispute over Achilles's shield: when Odysseus visits Hades, he begs the soul of Ajax to speak to him, but Ajax, still resentful over the old quarrel, refuses and descends silently back into Erebus.

Like Achilles, he is represented (although not by Homer) as living after his death in the island of Leuke at the mouth of the Danube (Pausanias 3.19.11). Ajax, who in the post-Homeric legend is described as the grandson of Aeacus and the great-grandson of Zeus, was the tutelary hero of the island of Salamis, where he had a temple and an image, and where a festival called Aianteia was celebrated in his honour (Pausanias 1.35). At this festival a couch was set up, on which the panoply of the hero was placed, a practice which recalls the Roman Lectisternium. The identification of Ajax with the family of Aeacus was chiefly a matter which concerned the Athenians, after Salamis had come into their possession, on which occasion Solon is said to have inserted a line in the Iliad (2.557-558), for the purpose of supporting the Athenian claim to the island. Ajax then became an Attic hero; he was worshipped at Athens, where he had a statue in the market-place, and the tribe Aiantis was named after him. Pausanias also relates that a gigantic skeleton, its kneecap 5 inches (130 mm) in diameter, appeared on the beach near Sigeum, on the Trojan coast; these bones were identified as those of Ajax.

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